Friday, January 31, 2020
Social Science Disciplines Essay Demography is the study of populations and population changes and trends, using resources such as statistics of births, deaths and disease. Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Statistics, Methods and Computing involves the collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative social science data. Development Studies, Human Geography and Environmental Planning Ã¢â¬ ¢Development Studies is a multidisciplinary branch of the social sciences which addresses a range of social and economic issues related to developing or low-income countries. Ã¢â¬ ¢Human Geography studies the world, its people, communities and cultures, and differs from physical geography mainly in that it focuses on human activities and their impact for instance on environmental change. Ã¢â¬ ¢Environmental Planning explores the decision-making processes for managing relationships within and between human systems and natural systems, in order to manage these processes in an effective, transparent and equitable manner. Economics, Management and Business Studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Economics seeks to understand how individuals interact within the social structure, to address key questions about the production and exchange of goods and services. Ã¢â¬ ¢Management and Business Studies explores a wide range of aspects relating to the activities and management of business, such as strategic and operational management, organisational psychology, employment relations, marketing, accounting, finance and logistics. Education, Social Anthropology, and Linguistics Ã¢â¬ ¢Education is one of the most important social sciences, exploring how people learn and develop. Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Anthropology is the study of how human societies and social structures are organised and understood. Ã¢â¬ ¢Linguistics focuses on language and how people communicate through spoken sounds and words. Law, Economic and Social History Ã¢â¬ ¢Law focuses on the rules created by governments and people to ensure a more orderly society. Ã¢â¬ ¢Economic and Social History looks at past events to learn from history and better understand the processes of contemporary society. Politics and International Relations Ã¢â¬ ¢Politics focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and policy, at all levels up from the individual to a national and international level. Ã¢â¬ ¢International Relations is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of other organisations. Psychology and Sociology Ã¢â¬ ¢Psychology studies the human mind and try to understand how people and groups experience the world through various emotions, ideas, and conscious states. Ã¢â¬ ¢Sociology involves groups of people, rather than individuals, and attempts to understand the way people relate to each other and function as a society or social sub-groups. Science and Technology Studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Science and Technology Studies is concerned with what scientists do, what their role is in our society, the history and culture of science, and the policies and debates that shape our modern scientific and technological world. Social Policy and Social Work Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Policy is an interdisciplinary and applied subject concerned with the analysis of societies responses to social need, focusing on aspects of society, economy and policy that are necessary to human existence, and how these can be provided. Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Work focuses on social change, problem-solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance social justice. This article is about the science studying social groups. For the integrated field of study intended to promote civic competence, see Social studies. Social science refers to the academic disciplines concerned with the society and the relationships of individuals within a society, which primarily rely on empirical approaches. It is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to anthropology, economics, political science,psychology and sociology. In a wider sense, it may often include humanities such as archaeology, area studies, communication studies,cultural studies, folkloristics, history, law, linguistics, and rhetoric. The term may however be used in the specific context of referring to the original science of society, established in 19th century, sociology (Latin: socius, companion; Greek Ã »ÃÅ'Ã ³Ã ¿Ãâ, lÃ ³gos, word, knowledge, study.). Ãâ°mile Durkheim, Karl Marx and Max Weber are typically cited as the principal architects of modern social science by this definition. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining the quantitative and qualitative techniques). The term social research has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was scientific. Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and was influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial revolution and the French revolution.The social sciences developed from the sciences (experimental and applied), or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in various grand encyclo pedia of Diderot, with articles from Rousseau and other pioneers. The growth of the social sciences is also reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw social science first used as a distinct conceptual field. Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative; metaphysical speculation was avoided. Auguste Comte used the term science social to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier; Comte also referred to the field as social physics. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the Social Sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route that was taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Ãâ°mile Durkheim, studying social facts, andVilfredo Pareto,Ã opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which the social phenomena was identifi ed with and understood; this was championed by figures such as Max Weber. The fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values; the antipositivism and verstehen sociology of Max Weber firmly demanded on this distinction. In this route, theory (description) and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject. Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure. The development of social science subfields became very quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behavior, social and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodo logy. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, sociobiology, neuropsychology, bioeconomics and the history and sociology of science. Increasingly, quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics. Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed grand theory with the various midrange theories which, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; for more, see consilience. The social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the re search of, and sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term social science may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim, Marx, and Weber, or more generally to all disciplines outside of noble science and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, education, health, economy and trade, and art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism. Branches of social science[edit source | editbeta] Social Science areas The following are problem areas and discipline branches within the social sciences. Ã¢â¬ ¢Anthropology Ã¢â¬ ¢Area studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Business studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Communication studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Criminology Ã¢â¬ ¢Demography Ã¢â¬ ¢Development studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Economics Ã¢â¬ ¢Education Ã¢â¬ ¢Geography Ã¢â¬ ¢History Ã¢â¬ ¢Industrial relations Ã¢â¬ ¢Information science Ã¢â¬ ¢Law Ã¢â¬ ¢Library science Ã¢â¬ ¢Linguistics Ã¢â¬ ¢Media studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Political science Ã¢â¬ ¢Psychology Ã¢â¬ ¢Public administration Ã¢â¬ ¢Sociology The Social Science disciplines are branches of knowledge which are taught and researched at the college or university level. Social Science disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned Social Science societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Social Science fields of study usually have several sub-disciplines or branches, and the distinguishing lines between these are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Anthropology[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Anthropology Anthropology is the holistic science of man, a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the Social Sciences, Humanities, and Human Biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. The humanities generally study local traditions, through their history, literature, music, and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras. The social scienceshave generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology. Anthropology (like some fields of history) does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, Anthropology is divided into four sub-fields:Archaeology, Physical or Biological Anthropology, Anthropological Linguistics, and Cultural Anthropology. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos (Ã ¬Ã ½Ã ¸Ã Ãâ°Ãâ¬Ã ¿Ãâ) is from the Greek for human being or person. Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences. The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called primitive inÃ anthropological literature, but without any connotation of inferior. Today, anthropologists use terms such as less complex societies or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as pastoralist or forager or horticulturalist to refer to humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk (ethnos) remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological. Communication studies[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Communication studies and History of communication studies Communication studies deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Communication is institutionalized under many different names at different universities, including communication, communication studies, speech communication, rhetorical studies, communication science, media studies, communication arts, mass communication, media ecology, and communication and media science. Communication studies integrates aspects of both social sciences and the humanities. As a social science, the discipline often overlaps with sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology, political science, economics, and public policy, among others. From a humanities perspective, communication is concerned with rhetoric and persuasion (traditional graduate programs in communication studies trace their history to the rhetoricians of Ancient Greece). The field applies to outside disciplines as well, including engineering, architecture, mathematics, and information science. Economics[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Economics Economics is a social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. The word economics is from the Greek Ã ¿Ã¡ ¼ ¶Ã ºÃ ¿Ãâ [oikos], family, household, estate, and Ã ½ÃÅ'Ã ¼Ã ¿Ãâ [nomos], custom, law, and hence means household management or management of the state. An economist is a person using economic concepts and data in the course of employment, or someone who has earned a degree in the subject. The classic brief definition of economics, set out by Lionel Robbins in 1932, is the science which studies human behavior as a relation between scarce means having alternative uses. Without scarcity and alternative uses, there is no economic problem. Briefer yet is the study of how people seek to satisfy needs and wants and the study of the financial aspects of human behavior. Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front inChichicastenango Market, Guatemala. Economics has two broad branches: microeconomics, where the unit of analysis is the individual agent, such as a household or firm, andmacroeconomics, where the unit of analysis is an economy as a whole. Another division of the subject distinguishes positive economics, which seeks to predict and explain economic phenomena, from normative economics, which orders choices and actions by some criterion; such orderings necessarily involve subjective value judgments. Since the early part of the 20th century, economics has focused largely on measurable quantities, employing both theoretical models and empirical analysis. Quantitative models, however, can be traced as far back as the physiocratic school. Economic reasoning has been increasingly applied in recent decades to other social situations such as politics, law, psychology, history, religion,marriage and family life, and other social interactions. This paradigm crucially assumes (1) that resources are scarce because they are not sufficient to satisfy all wants, and (2) that economic value is willingness to pay as revealed for instance by market (arms length) transactions. Rival heterodoxschools of thought, such asÃ institutional economics, green economics, Marxist economics, and economic sociology, make other grounding assumptions. For example, Marxist economics assumes that economics primarily deals with the exchange of value, and that labor (human effort) is the source of all value. The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism. Education[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Education Europes oldest university, the University of Bologna, Italy Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positivejudgement and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (seesocialization). To educate means to draw out, from the Latin educare, or to facilitate the realization of an individuals potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology,philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology. The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the childs development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Mark Twains admonition to never let school interfere with your education). Family members may have a profound educational effect Ã¢â¬â often more profound than they realize Ã¢â¬â though family teaching may function very informally. Human geography[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Geography and Human geography Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. This mayinvolveCultural geography, transportation, health, military operations, and cities. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation life,soil, oceans, water and landforms are produced and interact. Physical geography examines phenomena related to the measurement of earth. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans. Other branches of geography include Social geography,regional geography, and geomatics. Geographers attempt to understand the earth in terms of phys ical and spatial relationships. The first geographers focused on the science of mapmaking and finding ways to precisely project the surface of the earth. In this sense, geography bridges some gaps between the natural sciences and social sciences. Historical geography is often taught in a college in a unified Department of Geography. Modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline, closely related to GISc, that seeks to understand humanity and its natural environment. The fields of Urban Planning, Regional Science, andPlanetology are closely related to geography. Practitioners of geography use many technologies and methods to collect data such as GIS, remote sensing, aerial photography, statistics, andglobal positioning systems (GPS). History[edit source | editbeta] Main article: History History is the continuous, systematic narrative and research into past human events as interpreted through historiographical paradigms or theories, such as the Turner Thesis about the American frontier. History has a base in both the social sciences and the humanities. In the United States the National Endowment for the Humanities includes history in its definition of a Humanities (as it does for applied Linguistics). However, the National Research Council classifies History as a Social science. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians useprimary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. The Social Science History Association, formed in 1976, brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested insocial history. Law[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Law Law in common parlance, means a rule which (unlike a rule of ethics) is capable of enforcement through institutions. However, many laws are based on norms accepted by a community and thus have an ethical foundation. The study of law crosses the boundaries between the social sciences and humanities, depending on ones view of research into its objectives and effects. Law is not always enforceable, especially in the international relations context. It has been defined as a system of rules, as an interpretive concept to achieve justice, as an authority to mediate peoples interests, and even as the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction. However one likes to think of law, it is a completely central social institution. Legal policy incorporates the practical manifestation of thinking from almost every social sciences and humanity. Laws are politics, because politicians create them. Law is philosophy, because moral and ethical persuasions shape their ideas. Law tells many of historys stories, because statutes, case law and codifications build up over time. And law is economics, because any rule about contract, tort, property law, labour law,company law and many more can have long lasting effects on the distribution of wealth. The noun law derives from the late Old English lagu, meaning something laid down or fixed and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex. Linguistics[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics Linguistics investigates the cognitive and social aspects of human language. The field is divided into areas that focus on aspects of the linguistic signal, such as syntax (the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences), semantics (the study of meaning), morphology (the study of the structure of words), phonetics (the study of speech sounds) and phonology (the study of the abstract sound system of a particular language); however, work in areas like evolutionary linguistics (the study of the origins and evolution of language) and psycholinguistics (the study of psychologicalÃ factors in human language) cut across these divisions. The overwhelming majority of modern research in linguistics takes a predominantly synchronic perspective (focusing on language at a particular point in time), and a great deal of itÃ¢â¬âpartly owing to the influence of Noam ChomskyÃ¢â¬âaims at formulating theories of the cognitive processing of language. However, language does not exist in a vacuum, or only in the brain, and approaches like contact linguistics, creole studies, discourse analysis, social interactional linguistics, and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context. Sociolinguistics often makes use of traditional quantitative analysis and statistics in investigating the frequency of features, while some disciplines, like contact linguistics, focus on qualitative analysis. While certain areas of linguistics can thus be understood as clearly falling within the social sciences, other areas, like acoustic phonetics and neurolinguistics, draw on the natural sciences. Linguistics draws only secondarily on the humanities, which played a rather greater role in linguistic inquiry in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ferdinand Saussure is considered the father of modern linguistics. Political science[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Political science and Politics Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. Fields and subfields of political science include political economy, political theory and philosophy, civics and comparative politics, theory of direct democracy, apolitical governance, participatory direct democracy, national systems, cross-national political analysis, political development, international relations, foreign policy, international law, politics, public administration, administrative behavior, public law, judicial behavior, and public policy. Political science also studies power in international relations and the theory of Great powers and Superpowers. Political science is methodologically diverse, although recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the use of the scientific method . That is the proliferation of formal-deductive model building andÃ quantitative hypothesis testing. Approaches to the discipline include rational choice, classical political philosophy, interpretivism, structuralism, and behavioralism, realism, pluralism, and institutionalism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents, interviews, and official records, as well as secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles are used in building and testing theories. Empirical methods include survey research,statistical analysis/econometrics, case studies, experiments, and model building. Herbert Baxter Adams is credited with coining the phrase political science while teaching history at Johns Hopkins University. Public administration [edit source | editbeta] Main article: Public administration One of the main branches of political science, public administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. The pursuit of the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice is the ultimate goal of the field. Though public administration has historically referred to as government management, it increasingly encompasses non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that also operate with a similar, primary dedication to the betterment of humanity. Its the government protocol to solve a public problem. According to Anne Schneider and Helen Ingram, policies constitute the discourses, text, regulations and laws. Also the making of public policies include the enforcement of such and the tools given to the institutions to do so. Differentiating public administration from business administration, a closely related field, has become a popular method for defining the discipline by contrasting the two. First, the goals of public administration are more closely related to those often cited as goals of the American founders and democratic people in general.[dubious Ã¢â¬â discuss] That is, public employees work to improve equality, justice, security, efficiency, effectiveness, and, at times, the profit. These values help to both differentiate the field from business administration, primarily concerned with profit, and define the discipline. Second, public administration is a relatively new, multidisciplinary field.Ã Woodrow Wilsons The Study of Administration is frequently cited as the seminal work. Wilson advocated a more professional operation of public officials daily activities. Further, the future president identified the necessity in the United States of a separation between party politics and good bureaucracy, which has also been a lasting theme. The multidisciplinary nature of public administration is related to a third defining feature: administrative duties. Public administrators work in public agencies, at all levels of government, and perform a wide range of tasks. Public administrators collect and analyze data (statistics), monitor fiscal operations (budgets, accounts, and cash flow), organize large events and meetings, draft legislation, develop policy, and frequently execute legally mandated, government activities. Regarding this final facet, public administrators find themselves serving as parole officers, secretaries, note takers, paperwork processors, record keepers, notaries of the public, ca shiers, and managers. Indeed, the discipline couples well with many vocational fields such as information technology, finance, law, and engineering. When it comes to the delivery and evaluation of public services, a public administrator is undoubtedly involved. Psychology[edit source | editbeta] Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior and mental processes. Psychology also refers to the application of suchknowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. The word psychologycomes from the ancient Greek ÃËÃâ¦Ãâ¡Ã ®, psyche (soul, mind) and logy, study). Psychology differs from anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology in seeking to capture explanatory generalizations about the mental function and overt behavior of individuals, while the other disciplines focus on creating descriptive generalizations about the functioning of social groups or situation-specific human behavior. In practice, however, there is quite a lot of cross-fertilization that takes place among the various fields. Psychology differs from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behavior, and of the overall processes of a system, andnot simply the biological or neural processes themselves, though the subfield of neuropsychology combines the study of the actual neural processes with the study of the mental effects they have subjectively produced. Many people associate Psychology with Clinical Psychology which focuses on assessment and treatment of problems in living and psychopathology. In reality, Psychology has myriad specialties including: Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Mathematical psychology, Neuropsychology, and Quantitative Analysis of Behavior to name only a few. Psychology is a very broad science that is rarely tackled as a whole, major block. Although some subfields encompass a natural science base and a social science application, others can be clearly distinguished as having little to do with the social sciences or having a lot to do with the social sciences. For example, biological psychology is considered a natural science with a social scientific application (as is clinical medicine), social and occupational psychology are, generally speaking, purely social sciences, whereas neuropsychology is a natural science that lacks application out of the scientific tradition entirely. In British universities, emphasis on what tenet of psychology a student has studied and/or concentrated is communicated through the degree conferred: B.Psy. indicates a balance between natural and social sciences, B.Sc. indicates a strong (or entire) scientific concentration, whereas a B.A. underlines a majority of social science credits. This is not always necessarily the case however, and in many UK institutions students studying the B.Psy, B.Sc, and B.A. follow the same curriculum as outlined by The British Psychological Society and have the same options of specialism open to them regardless of whether they choose a balance, a heavy science basis, or heavy social science basis to their degree. If they applied to read the B.A. for example, but specialised in heavily science based modules, then they will still generally be awarded the B.A. Sociology[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Sociology Ãâ°mile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology. Sociology is the systematic study of society and human social action. The meaning of the word comes from the suffix -ology which means study of,Ã derived from Greek, and the stem soci- which is from the Latin word socius, meaning companion, or society in general. Sociology was originally established by Auguste Comte (1798Ã¢â¬â1857) in 1838. Comte endeavoured to unify history, psychology and economics through the descriptive understanding of the social realm. He proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy [1830Ã¢â¬â1842] and A General View of Positivism (1844). Though Comte is generally regarded as the Father of Sociology, the discipline was formally established by another French thinker, Ãâ°mile Durkheim (1858Ã¢â¬â1917), who developed positivism as a foundation to practical social research. Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method. In 1896, he established the journal LAnnÃ ©e Sociologique. Durkheims seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a case study of suicide rates amongst Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis frompsychology or philosophy. Karl Marx rejected Comtes positivism but nevertheless aimed to establish a science of society based on historical materialism, becoming recognised as a founding figure of sociology posthumously as the term gained broader meaning. Around the start of the 20th century, the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, developed sociol ogical antipositivism. The field may be broadly recognised as an amalgam of three modes of social thought in particular: Durkheimian positivism and structural functionalism; Marxist historical materialism and conflict theory; Weberian antipositivism and verstehen analysis. American sociology broadly arose on a separate trajectory, with little Marxist influence, an emphasis on rigorous experimental methodology, and a closer association with pragmatism and social psychology. In the 1920s, the Chicago school developedsymbolic interactionism. Meanwhile in the 1930s, the Frankfurt School pioneered the idea of critical theory, an interdisciplinary form of Marxist sociologydrawing upon thinkers as diverse as Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche. Critical theory would take on something of a life of its own after World War II, influencing literary criticism and the Birmingham School establishment of cultural studies. Sociology evolved as an academic response to the challenges of modernity, such as industrialization, urbanization,Ã secularization, and a perceived process of enveloping rationalization.Because sociology is such a broad discipline, it can be difficult to define, even for professional sociologists. The field generally concerns the social rule s and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, communities and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life. The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes. In the terms of sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, social scientists seek an understanding of the Social Construction of Reality. Most sociologists work in one or more subfields. One useful way to describe the discipline is as a cluster of sub-fields that examine different dimensions of society. For example, social stratification studies inequality and class structure; demography studies changes in a population size or type; criminology examines criminal behavior and deviance; and political sociology studies the interaction between society and state. Since its inception, sociological epistemologies, methods, and frames of enquiry, have significantly expanded and diverged. Sociologists use a diversity of research methods, drawing upon either empirical techniques or critical theory. Common modern methods in clude case studies, historical research, interviewing, participant observation, social network analysis, survey research,statistical analysis, and model building, among other approaches. Since the late 1970s, many sociologists have tried to make the discipline useful for non-academic purposes. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, developers, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy, through subdisciplinary areas such asevaluation research, methodological assessment, and public sociology. New sociological sub-fields continue to appear Ã¢â¬â such as community studies, computational sociology, environmental sociology, network analysis, actor-network theory and a growing list, many of which are cross-disciplinary in nature. Additional fields of study[edit source | editbeta] Additional applied or interdisciplinary fields related to the Social Sciences include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Archaeology is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes. Ã¢â¬ ¢Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. Ã¢â¬ ¢Behavioral science is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world. Ã¢â¬ ¢Computational social science is an umbrella field encompassing computational approaches within the social sciences. Ã¢â¬ ¢Demography is the statistical study of all human populations. Ã¢â¬ ¢Development studies a multidisciplinary branch of social science which addresses issues of concern to developing countries. Ã¢â¬ ¢Environmental social science is the broad, transdisciplinary study of interrelations between humans and the natural environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Environmental studies integrate social, humanistic, and natural science perspectives on the relation between humans and the natural environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Ã¢â¬ ¢International studies covers both International relations (the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system) and International education (the comprehensive approach that intentionally prepares people to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world). Ã¢â¬ ¢Journalism is the craft of conveying news, descriptive material and comment via a widening spectrum of media. Ã¢â¬ ¢Legal management is a social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of State and Legal elements. Ã¢â¬ ¢Library science is an interdisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation and disseminat ion of information resources; and the political economy of information. Ã¢â¬ ¢Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Ã¢â¬ ¢Marketing the identification of human needs and wants, defines and measures their magnitude for demand and understanding theprocess of consumer buying behavior to formulate products and services, pricing, promotion and distribution to satisfy these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. Ã¢â¬ ¢Political economy is the study of production, buying and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government. Methodology[edit source | editbeta] Social research[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Social research The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in 1086, whilst some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to 1663 with the publication of John Graunts Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality. Social research began most intentionally, however, with the positivist philosophy of science in the 19th century. In contemporary usage, social research is a relatively autonomous term, encompassing the work of practitioners from various disciplines which share in its aims and methods. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agents social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods originally rooted in classical sociology and statistical mathematics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, and marketing and market research. Social research methods may be divided into two broad schools: Ã¢â¬ ¢Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims. Ã¢â¬ ¢Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality Social scientists will commonly combine quantitative and qualitative approaches as part of a multi-strategy design. Questionnaires, field-based data collection, archival database information and laboratory-based data collections are some of the measurement techniques used. It is noted the importance of measurement and analysis, focusing on the (difficult to achieve) goal of objective research or statisticalÃ hypothesis testing. A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modelling (also modeling). Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) which presents knowledge of that system in usable form. Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models. These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. The system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an integrated whole can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. Dynamical system modeled as a mathematical formalization has fixed rule which describes the time dependence of a points position in its ambient space. Small changes in the state of the system correspond to small changes in the numbers. The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a fixed rule that describes what future states follow from the current state. The rule is deterministic: for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Confusion in Landscape for a Good Woman I found Landscape for a Good Woman to be a confusing landscape, one whose contours are difficult to follow. I don't mean to imply that I did not find the book fascinating, but it was so rich and the stories and scholarly discussions were so intertwined that it was difficult to keep track of what Steedman was trying to convey. Why did she choose to write in this way? Instead of giving us a straight narrative about her childhood and allowing us to make our own inferences, I feel as if she's told a story and, at the same time, she's told us how to interpret that story and has given us a critique of her own and others' interpretations of her story. Steedman does begin the section titled "Stories" by saying that "this book. . . is about interpretations." Of course, all stories, fiction or non-fiction, are interpretations of events and characters, told from the perspective of the author. I don't find the interpretations themselves to be problematic; maybe what I find confusing is that Steedman gives us interpretations from so many different...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This is a story of when I fell down in the school cafeteria. This event was very embarrassing at first and I kind of felt sad. After a while, I started laughing with the kids that were laughing at me, so that I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel bad the rest of the day and so that I could get over it. This is my most embarrassing day, but it also one of the funniest days. I learned a very important lesson that day, which is how to turn an embarrassing situation into a bearable situation. It all started on Tuesday August, 21 2012. I woke up at 5:30am to get ready for school.I used the shower and got dressed. After getting dressed, I ate breakfast and started walking to the bus stop and waited for the bus. I got off the bus and went to get my books for my classes. It was a good day. I went through my classes without any problems. I had just left my 5th period class, French, to go to the cafeteria to get something to eat. I walked from French class and waited at the cafeteria doors for my friends, th en we went into the cafeteria. We got in line and waited to get our lunch. Waiting in line for my lunch felt as if I was waiting in line for a roller coaster.The line was extremely long and I was getting tired of waiting, but knew I had to wait. I got a chicken sandwich, an apple and a cookie. I went to the lunch lady and paid for my lunch. I went to a small table in front of the cafeteria and got some napkins and ketchup. After getting my lunch, I took it to my table and sat at my table to eat lunch. After a while I got up to stand in the line with my friends again. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t looking, so I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that there was water on the floor. I also didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see the cautionary sign that says the area is wet and that people should be careful. I slipped and fell so hard the whole cafeteria heard it.I looked up and Ã¢â¬Å"BAMÃ¢â¬ people that where around me started laughing and pointing at me. I was embarrassed and sad and at that very moment I wanted the ground to open up and swallow me. I wanted to be anywhere else but at the cafeteria at that moment. However, after a little while I started laughing too. I laughed because I thought it was funny and also because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to feel bad for being laughed at because being laughed at hurts. So, I just acted like nothing happened. After lunch I went back to class and laughed about it again to myself. The thing is, even though it was embarrassing, it was also very funny.I went to my last two classes, which were English and Biology. During those two classes it was hard for me to be fully involved in the class because I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help thinking about my incident at the school cafeteria. After school I went to my locker to get my soccer bag for practice. During practice all I could think about yet again was the accident in the cafeteria. I was just as energetic at soccer practice, like always and I was joking around with my teammates as I always do. After practice I went home, ate, and fell asleep. When I was sleeping I dreamt about the accident and I felt just as embarrassed in the dream.Now every time that something embarrassing happens to me, I think about what I did in the cafeteria and I just laugh. I promised myself, that from now on I will pay attention to where IÃ¢â¬â¢m going and be mindful of my steps. I also learned from that experience that things are not always as bad as they seem. If I had cried or showed it on my face that I was embarrassed and sad, the kids who were laughing at me would have kept on laughing. However, since I laughed with them, I took control of the situation by showing them that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a big deal. I guess in life, we need to learn how to laugh.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Theres no way to get a precise count of gun ownership in the United States on a state-by-state basis. Thats due in large part to lack of national standards for licensing and registering firearms, which is left to the states and their varying degrees of regulation. But there are several reputable organizations that track firearms-related statistics, such as the nonpartisan Pew Research Center, which can provide a fairly accurate look at gun ownership by state, as well as annual federal licensing data. Guns in the U.S. According to the Washington Post, there are more than 350 million guns in the U.S. That figure comes from a 2015 analysis of data from theÃ Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF). But other sources say there are far fewer guns in the U.S., perhaps 245 million or even 207 million. Even if you use a lower estimate, thats still more than one-third of all civilian-owned guns in the world, making America No 1. in terms of gun ownership in the world. A 2017 survey by the Pew Research Center reveals some more interesting stats about guns in the U.S. Handguns are the most common choice of firearm among gun owners, especially those who only own one weapon. The South is the region with the most guns (about 36 percent), followed by the Midwest and West (32 and 31 percent, respectively) and the Northeast (16 percent). Men are more likely than women to own a gun, according to Pew. About 40 percent of men say they own a firearm, while 22 percent of women do. A closer analysis of this demographic data reveals that about 46 percent of guns are owned by rural households, while just 19 percent of urban households do. About 66 percent of firearms in the U.S. are owned by people aged 50 and older. People aged 30 to 49 own about 28 percent of the nations guns, with the rest belonging to this 18 to 29. Politically, Republicans are twice as likely as Democrats to own a gun. Number of Guns Ranked by State The following data is based on 2017 gun registration statistics from the ATF, as compiled by HuntingMark.com. States (plus Washington D.C.) are ranked by guns per capita. If you were to rank states by total guns registered, Texas would be No. 1. For a different perspective, CBS conducted a telephone survey that placed Alaska at the top of the per-capita ranking. Rank State # of guns per capita # of guns registered 1 Wyoming 229.24 132,806 2 Washington D.C. 68.05 47,228 3 New Hampshire 46.76 64,135 4 New Mexico 46.73 97,580 5 Virginia 36.34 307,822 6 Alabama 33.15 161,641 7 Idaho 28.86 49,566 8 Arkansas 26.57 79,841 9 Nevada 25.64 76,888 10 Arizona 25.61 179,738 11 Louisiana 24.94 116,831 12 South Dakota 24.29 21,130 13 Utah 23.48 72,856 14 Connecticut 22.96 82,400 15 Alaska 21.38 15,824 16 Montana 21.06 22,133 17 South Carolina 21.01 105,601 18 Texas 20.79 588,696 19 West Virginia 19.42 35,264 20 Pennsylvania 18.45 236,377 21 Georgia 18.22 190,050 22 Kentucky 18.2 81,068 23 Oklahoma 18.13 71,269 24 Kansas 18.06 52,634 25 North Dakota 17.56 13,272 26 Indiana 17.1 114,019 27 Maryland 17.03 103,109 28 Colorado 16.48 92,435 29 Florida 16.35 343,288 30 Ohio 14.87 173,405 31 North Carolina 14.818 152,238 32 Oregon 14.816 61,383 33 Tennessee 14.76 99,159 34 Minnesota 14.22 79,307 35 Washington 12.4 91,835 36 Missouri 11.94 72,996 37 Mississippi 11.89 35,494 38 Nebraska 11.57 22,234 39 Maine 11.5 15,371 40 Illinois 11.44 146,487 41 Wisconsin 11.19 64,878 42 Vermont 9.41 5,872 43 Iowa 9.05 28,494 44 California 8.71 344,622 45 Michigan 6.59 65,742 46 New Jersey 6.38 57,507 47 Hawaii 5.5 7,859 48 Massachusetts 5.41 37,152 49 Delaware 5.04 4,852 50 Rhode Island 3.98 37,152 51 New York 3.83 76,207 Sources CBS News staff. Gun Ownership and Gun Violence in America, by the Numbers. CBSNews.com, 15 February 2018. Edwards, Jeff. Gun Ownership Mapped: How Many Guns Each State Had In 2017? HuntingMark.com,Ã 18 February 2018. Ingraham, Christopher. There are Now More Guns Than People in the United States. WashingtonPost.com, 5 October 2015. McCarthy, Tom; Beckett, Lois; and Glenza, Jessica. Americas Passion for Guns: Ownership and Violence by the Numbers. TheGuardian.com, 3 October 2017. Parker, Kim; Horowitz, Juliana Menasche; Igielnik, Ruth; Oliphant, Baxter; and Brown, Anna. The Demographics of Gun Ownership. Pew Research Center, 22 June 2017.