Thursday, June 4, 2020
Prison Re-entry Program in New Jersey Research Assignment (Essay Sample) Content: Prison Re-entry Program in New JerseyStudents Name:Institutional Affiliation: IntroductionPaying for crimes committed is a fundamental action in the society as it leads to the payment of debts for the wrongs done by the perpetrator to the afflicted members of the community. Moreover, it aids in the provision of life moral lessons to an inmate by making he or she let go of the vice. The release of the criminal offender after incarceration for crimes committed is complex individually when inmates are released into the community. Re-entry programs are essential in aiding an individual to fit back in the society, begin their lives afresh together with getting involved in communal matters. This essay will discuss prison re-entry programs in New Jersey, a state in North Eastern Part of the U.S. by majorly focusing its primary area in correctional re-entry programs in New Jersey State.Overview of re-entry programsWhen sentenced to a certain period of jail term for wrongs co mmitted, the incarcerated individual begins a new life. This is achieved through confinement in a solitary cell, adhering to the rules and instructions that are provided by the prison administration and abiding by what the incarceration prison demands. Different types of crime attract different levels of punishment to the number of months or years an individual has to spend in jail. A re-entry program is a process whereby crime offenders are released to the society (Mooney, 2017). This is either after the completion of their jail term serve, heads of states order of their release and being set free from federal or super federal release. Re-entry programs are meant to facilitate the transformation process of an ex-inmate. It focuses on aiding an individuals interaction with members of the society and minimizes recidivism; the temptation to go back into past life and desire to offend as a form of repayment for the pain the incarcerated individual went through while in jail. A majority of prison inmates are released back to the community on parole, a temporary or permanent liberation to the society with the promise of desirable behavior. Depending with the state in the U.S, inmates on parole are provided with varying prison re-entry programs.New Jersey prison re-entry programsWhile serving jail term, inmates get detached from societal life and become used to life in the prison. The release into the society is an intimidating factor as they are given the power and authority to do what they want whenever they want to. Besides, coping with the normal way of life of the society is a nuisance to a majority of inmates as the new life requires discipline, commitment, hard work and sacrifice. This is understood by a majority of psychological experts who do numerous researchers on life after prison. To assist in reshaping the lives of inmates on parole and help them fit into the society, New Jersey State has provided the following correctional prison re-entry programs:In tense post-release parole supervisionThe State Parole Board in conjunction with Department of Corrections have devised measures that aid in overseeing the progress of parolees in the first few months after their release from prison. The state of New Jersey has approximately 15,000 inmates released from prison parole every month. Parole officers in close association with New Jersey Board Division of Parole are sworn in and given the mandate to offer the truth on all the actions of the parolee. The released inmates are also provided with information on their close monitoring. There are numerous pros brought under close supervision of parolees by parole officers from the state of New Jersey. It ensures that parolees adhere to the law and restrain themselves from recidivating and repeating of crimes done. Also, it ensures that released inmates perform their assigned jobs and tasks as this enhances reshaping their lives apart from providing them with essential life necessities such as fo od, clothing and shelter. Besides, close supervision of parolees by New Jersey State parole officers ensures that they do not engage in drug and substance abuse and the whole process aids in restructuring their lives back to the society.Coordination of parole with drug, substance abuse and mental healthBetween 1977 and 2002, there was a tremendous increase in the number of inmates at prisons in New Jersey. The total number of inmates at prisons in the state was 6,017 in 1977 whereas in 2002, the total number of inmates had escalated to 27,891. The average rate of imprisonment at the state rose significantly from 76 to331 in a total of 100,000 people. The primary cause of the increased prison populations was the violation of rules by the parolees together with recidivating. A majority of inmates perpetrate crimes as a result of the influence of drugs and substance abuse. Despite the high-security levels that are provided by security guards in prisons, successful drug smuggling happen s. The vice continues while the parolees are released into the society and this leads to new arrests and imprisonment. Besides, New Jersey state probation officers are given the authority to visit inmates at their residences or work. This is accompanied by drug and alcohol blood tests to determine the transformation of the parolee. Such regular tests act as a correctional strategy as an ex-offender will restrain from drug and substance abuse.Provision of jobs and Basic amenities provisionWhile an inmate is released from prison, the probation period is quite challenging as they have to give their lives a new start. There are instances where an inmate has served ten or more years in prison and kick-starting life becomes a problem (Growns et al. 2017). When released into the society, they require basics such as food, clothing and shelter. Failure to acquire such essentials provides higher chances of getting into crime and drug distribution to survive. To assist in restructuring them in to the society and avoid recidivating, jobs are an essential component to them. New Jersey State Parole Board has aided the prevention of parolees recidivating by the provision of employment and shelter. Also, the state has established One-Stop Career Centers, a region that provides ex-offenders with employment referrals thus providing them with higher chances of acquiring jobs. Besides, the One-Stop Career Centers have formed a partnership with the U.S automobiles industry where parolees have been welcomed to train on a wide variety of mechanical jobs freely. People abuse drugs due to various reasons but a majority of ex-inmates abused drugs because of life challenges. The provision of such amenities creates a stress-free life, therefore, it aids in the maintenance of their sober lives.Parole success enhancement stageThe state of New Jer...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
The Abolishment of Slavery As slavery moved past the 13th Amendment, two African American men found themselves sitting in the Massachusetts Legislature in 1866. This is the first time a black representative has participated in this branch of American government. President Johnson meets with a delegation headed by Fredrick Douglas to discuss the issue of black suffrage. So many things are happening in such a short period of time. African Americans are getting involved with experiencing their freedom. The U.S. Army creates a black cavalry and infantry regiments. One year later Congress gave blacks the right to vote in Washington, D.C. In 1870 the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, securing the right to vote for black adult males. Also for the first time, African Americans were listed by name in the U.S. Census. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper was a voice to be heard for African American women early on as she distinguished herself as a poet, teacher, and abolition ist. After the Civil War, she became a staunch advocate of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage and a supporter of the 15th Amendment, which set her at odds with the suffragist Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. In this discussion at the May 1869 American Equal Rights Association meeting, Harper argues for ratification of the 15th Amendment. (Exploring American History Document 14.3, Page 439) The ex-slaves did experience some freedom, at times some of the Southern States could not completely put
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Chad Funk Professor Sharon Thiese The Short Story May 28th, 2012 Literary Analysis Ã¢â¬Å"SettingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â A Good Man is Hard to Find In the story Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ by Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor starts out by giving a look at a dysfunctional family on a vacation, but ultimately, gives insight into ourselves as well as the nature of good and evil, how they can clash, and how they can co-exist, even in the same person. The setting, which plays a critical role in this short story because the grandmother shows her selfish wants and views on people and society and believes that things were much better in her early years. As the story unfolds the setting provides insights to the where the dysfunctional family will eventually meet their doom, which isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The actual time of the year would be in summer because of that statement. Also the grandmother points out the colorful scenery of Stone Mountain, various crops, and how the tress sparkled from the sunlight, which is further proof of the time of year as everything is in full bloom. As the story continues the timing of the afternoon becomes unclear and we do not know how late it is when the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s car is in the accident and lands in the ditch. However this is the most important part of the setting because this is where the most action is as well as where the story ends. In the story the grandmother recalled the times when there were no paved roads and thirty miles was a days journey. The dirt road was hilly and there were sudden washes in it and sharp curves on dangerous embankments. All at once they would be on a hill, looking down over the blue tops of trees for miles around, then the next minute, they would be in a red depression with the dust-coated trees looking down on them (1047). This can be seen as the grandmother recalling the days when Ã¢â¬Å"road of lifeÃ¢â¬ was not paved, and was a much longer journey. These are the days when she feels things were better and not so narrow and paved like the roads they were originally traveling on before entering onto the dirt road. Does OÃ¢â¬â¢Conner mimic the journey of life here? It has many sharp curves on dangerous embankments, and it leads the family up onto hilltops, where theyShow MoreRelatedEssay about flannery oconner: queen of irony1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor: Queen of Irony The literary rebellion, known as realism, established itself in American writing as a direct response to the age of American romanticismÃ¢â¬â¢s sentimental and sensationalist prose. As the dominance of New EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s literary culture waned Ã¢â¬Å"a host of new writers appeared, among them Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, and Mark Twain, whose background and training, unlike those of the older generation they displaced, were middle-class and journalistic rather than genteelRead MoreAn Analysis Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthese things about the story, has taken the words right from my mouth. An analysis was taken from the story and many critics agreed, Stevenson wrote with power and knowledge and had settled that this is one of his greatest accomplishments as a writer. In recent years, readers began to understand that, the story had a sort of comparison to what was going on at the time the narrative was being written. To most, the mood and setting had a sort of dark and dreary feeling much like how it was in Britain atRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Black Like Me 1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages University Of South Florida A Literary Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Black Like MeÃ¢â¬ Raed Margushi Academic Preparation Lisana Mohamed 4th of December, 2015 A Literary Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Black Like MeÃ¢â¬ John Howard Griffin was a writer who wanted to write about the truth. In dealing with the racial discrimination problems in the United States, Griffin wanted to write about the realities of the situation. However, he was a white man. He empathized with the black people and wanted equality for themRead MoreEssay about The Third Man, Historical Analysis1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Third Man, Historical Analysis A Review of the Film APA The Third Man, was filmed in post World War II Vienna, releasing in 1949. The film was written by Graham Greene, directed by Carol Reed, and produced by the American David Selznick and the British Michael Korda. The black and white, pessimistic film Ã¢â¬Å"is one of the greatest British thrillers of the post-war era, in the best Alfred Hitchcock tradition, and beautifully producedÃ¢â¬ ¦.It was voted the #1 British Film of the 20thRead MoreHuman Nature And The Human Beings1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesspecifically, a fear she carries on with her throughout her life. Forward to the protagonist as a married woman, she finds herself in a situation where both she and her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Ian, are caught in an ocean current and face an imminent danger of drowning. In this instance, she is able to conquer her source of despair and recognize the extent of her own strength. The literary element of theme is evidently portrayed in Kari StruttÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Touching Bottom throug h fear of the unknown, realizationsRead MoreYoung Goodman Brown Essay(Symbolism)1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIBEnglish III 13 September 2011 Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ Analysis One of the factors that shaped the New World was religion; it was a pillar in the fledgling society and a reason for migration for so many Europeans. Puritanism was a major belief system that held strongly throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Nathaniel Hawthorne, a nineteenth century American novelist and short story writer, composed the story of Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ which takes place in SalemRead MoreReview Of The Snows Of Kilimanjaro And Fitzgerald Winter Dreams 1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Norton Anthology of American Literature is a collection of stories and poems that represent different periods in our American literary history. The Anthology is more than a history book or a collection of stories. It is a glimpse into the life, norms, attitudes, and ethics of a specific time period as seen through the eyes of each author. The stories and poems represent times that often seem removed from our current culture, such as the morally bankrupt slave traders and owners, or as relevantRead MoreEssay about Critical Analysis of Walter Mosley 2535 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages Critical Analysis of Walter Mosley Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"You have the right to remain silent. Anything you do or say may be used against you in a court of law.Ã¢â¬ Although no one wants to hear these words, they are words that are known across the country and are uttered every day. Walter Mosley takes this concept of Ã¢â¬Å"by the bookÃ¢â¬ law enforcement and jazzes it up in The Devil in a Blue Dress, a novel based on Ezekiel Rawlins, a character stuck between the struggle of enforcing the law or engaging into criminal activityRead MoreJohn Steinbeck: An American Writer During the Great Depression1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto earn a piece of small land and live together happily in that hard time. It is also called the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ and exists in many workersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind. The novel is a parable about loneliness, friendship and dream. The author expressed his sympathy towards the underprivileged people through the description of the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ personality and fate. 2. John SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s Philosophy The right philosophical outlook can instruct writers to find a proper way of learning about life. Then, writers can present aRead MoreAn Analysis of the Swimmer by John Cheever1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLea Shontay Wilks Instructor Lisa Adams Lit 101 Introduction to Literature (33203.201330) 26 April 2014 An Analysis of The Swimmer by John Cheever Most stories can have an emotional impact on people, but once in a while certain stories can take the reader to the edge of reality. The Swimmer is a fascinating story with primary use of a setting and amazing characters that engages readers and can move them to experience life in an unfathomable way. Cheever was born May 27, 1912, in Quincy, Massachusetts
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Treatises on Taxation Laws. Answer: Introduction: Subsection 6(1) of the ITA Act 1997 defines income with regards to personal exertion as being incomes that are comprised of earnings, commissions, salaries, wages, fees along with superannuation allowances and bonuses in the capacity of being an employee, or in terms of rendering services or proceedings related to business operated or carried out by the taxpayer individually or in conjugation with any other person. Therefore it can be inferred from above that as Hilary cannot fit into this definition in case of publishing her story as she is not an employee of Daily Terror. She has been offered $10,000 for publishing her life story under the newspaper and has in turn sold the rights along with interests from copyrights onto the newspapers. Moreover, as Hillary has made exercise with regards to her writing skills and written a story based on her expertise and experiences from mountain climbing therefore the income derived from the selling of such interests comes under purview of incom e from personal services as opposed to income from exertion. Further as Hillary has not sought any professional assistance, in writing her life story, such as hiring a ghost writer for assistance therefore such services comes under the head of Income from personal services. In case of selling of manuscript to Mitchell Library it can be inferred that the $5,000 earned from sale cannot be apportioned under the head income from personal exertion as such incomes comes from professional efforts on the part of Hillary. Moreover, in case of selling photographs at an amount of $2,000 Hillary employed use of professional skills along with professional equipments devoid of any external assistance. Thereby, incomes from the sale of photographs can be attributed to income from exertions as amount. In case Hillary had no intentions of selling her story at the time of writing it her efforts cannot be considered to be with a view to earn profits. In the current case study, there have not been any formal agreements between the client and her son regarding the loan advanced. Moreover, the client has mentioned that her son is not required to pay taxes as regards to the loans advanced for housing purposes of her son. Morse and Deutsch (2016) mentions that in cases of interfamily financial transfers, the agreements tends to be mutual as opposed to being written in a contractual manner. Frecknall-Hughes and McKerchar (2013) states that is caused by the fact that cohesion between family members along with the level of trust that are established has a significant role to play in terms of any monetary and non monetary interactions among the members of the same family. Schedule of Loan Repayment by Son Particulars $ Maturity amount as decided initially 50,000 Time frame of maturity 5 years Amount of loan taken 40000 Profit as per initial claims 10,000 Interest per year applying simple interest method 2000 Per year rate of interest computed on the basis of (in percent) 5 Actual interest rates offered by the son. 5 Total amounts of repayment made by son 44000 Interest paid 4000 Section 26.40 of the ITA Act specifies the fact that the individuals are allowed to deduct any expenditures as regards to maintenance of spouse and child who is below 16 years of age (Ato.gov.au., 2016). However, her son being an adult she cannot legally benefit from providing financial assistance to the clients. In the current case, the repayment period was stated to be of 5 years along with a repayment price of $50,000 with regard to the $40000 borrowed. Thereby, incurring an overall lump sum interest of $10,000 which comes from ($50,000 - $40,000) as per the terms mutually settled between the client and her son. The amount of $42,000 received from the clients son has no taxable repercussions as no formal agreements have been made with regards to the advancements of loan. Computation of capital gain Particulars Details $ Sale price of property 800,000 Indexation (based on 3rd quarter of 1986) 2.513889 Market value of land as on the date 1 September, 1986 90000 Indexed cost of acquiring land 226250 Cost of constructing building on 1 September, 1986 60000 Indexed cost of construction of building 150833.3 Capital gains 422,917 The indexation as regards to the acquired capital assets through use of consumer price indexation method is aimed towards providing parity in taxation method (Tran-Nam, Evans and Lignier, 2014). Moreover, it assists towards providing adequate relief in terms of capital gains to individuals along with companies in case of capital gain transactions. Moreover, indexation also helps towards serving as the base of cost ascertainment of equitable base (Graham, Raedy, and Shackelford, 2012). Thereby, in the current case study Scots indexed cost of acquisition assist towards reducing the amount of capital gain from the sell out of the renting property. The market value of the land was taken from 1.09.86 due to the fact that indexation cannot be done for acquisition costs prior to 1st quarter of 1985. Moreover, in case of computation of indexation ratio, the indexation available for the 2nd quarter of 2016 is taken into account along with the indexation for the 3rd quarter of 1986. In case Scot decides to sell the property to his daughter, he cannot avail any benefits of low consideration price. It is because of the fact that as per the Income Tax Assessment Act, 1997 in cases where properties and capital assets are transferred to family member at a price less that of the prevailing market price, the market price shall be considered as the sale price of the asset or property. Accordingly, capital gain shall be computed through deducting market price of the property on the date of transfer from the cost of acquisition (indexed or not indexed). Thereby, the amount of capital gain taxable in the hands of Scots will not change even if he transfers the property to his daughter below the market value at $200,000. In case of a company, indexation methods will still be applicable as companies are barred from following discounted methods. Thereby, the capital gains in terms of companies will not change in this circumstance. References and Bibliography: Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C. and Pinto, D., 2016.Australian Taxation Law 2016. Oxford University Press. Pinto, D., Gilchrist, D. and Morgan, A., 2013. A few reflections on the current state of play for not-for-profit taxation arrangements.Taxation in Australia,48(2), p.79. Morse, S.C. and Deutsch, R., 2016. Tax Anti-Avoidance Law in Australia and the United States. Gains, F.R.C., 2014. Law Society Advocacy and Law Reform: Latest News and Developments. Frecknall-Hughes, J. and McKerchar, M., 2013. Historical perspectives on the emergence of the tax profession: Australia and the UK.Austl. Tax F.,28, p.275. Davison, M., Monotti, A. and Wiseman, L., 2016.Australian intellectual property law. Cambridge University Press. Tran-Nam, B., Evans, C. and Lignier, P., 2014. Personal taxpayer compliance costs: Recent evidence from Australia.Austl. Tax F.,29, p.137. Dahl, G.B. and Lochner, L., 2012. The impact of family income on child achievement: Evidence from the earned income tax credit.The American Economic Review,102(5), pp.1927-1956. Graham, J.R., Raedy, J.S. and Shackelford, D.A., 2012. Research in accounting for income taxes.Journal of Accounting and Economics,53(1), pp.412-434. Ato.gov.au. (2016). Guide to capital gains tax 2016 | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/Forms/Guide-to-capital-gains-tax-2016/ [Accessed 23 Aug. 2016]. Ato.gov.au. (2016). Working out your capital gain | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Capital-gains-tax/Working-out-your-capital-gain-or-loss/Working-out-your-capital-gain/ [Accessed 23 Aug. 2016]. Ato.gov.au. (2016). Transferring real estate to family or friends | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Capital-gains-tax/In-detail/Real-estate/Transferring-real-estate-to-family-or-friends/?page=3 [Accessed 24 Aug. 2016]. Ato.gov.au. (2016). Consumer price index | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/Rates/Consumer-price-index/ [Accessed 24 Aug. 2016].
Sunday, April 19, 2020
is having an interesting life. He is known for many things. These include he talks during the Vietnam War for peace, organizing help for villages, instituting schools for youths, and has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Martin Luther King Jr. Thich Naht Hahn has one of the most amazing backgrounds that lead up to the legacy of this Nobel Peace Prize Nominee. Thich Naht Hahn has been living in exile from his native land of Vietnam since he was forty years old. In 1966, he was banned by both the non-Communist and Communist governments for his role in undermining the violence he saw affecting his people. He has been a Buddhist monk since he was 16 years old, he earned a reputation as a respected writer, scholar, and leader. He is known as Thay (Teacher) to his followers. He has headed a movement known as Engaged Buddhism, which involved traditional meditative practices with active nonviolent civil disobedience. This movement lays behind the establishment of the most influential center of Buddhist studies in Saigon, the An Quang Pagoda. He has also set up relief organizations to rebuild destroyed vil
Sunday, March 15, 2020
buy custom The Research Design essay Exploratory Research This research method is used when the research problem is badly understood. The variables of the problem are not known and it is the lack of this knowledge to the researcher which makes it difficult for the researcher to conduct his research. Exploratory research explores the parameters of the problems in order to identify what should be measured and how best to undertake a study. According to Robson, 2002 exploratory study is a valuable means of finding out what is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light (Saunders, Lewis Thornhill, 2007). This type of research helps to develop a clear formulation of the scope and nature of the research problem. At early stages of decision-making process, exploratory research is used to obtain a preliminary investigation of the situation with a minimum expenditure of time and money. Descriptive Research The object of descriptive research is to portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situations (Saunders, Lewis Thornhill, 2007). This research method is used when the problem is structured and well understood. Under descriptive research the researcher is aware of one of the variables of the problem which makes it eaier for him to solve the problem. The researcher is aware of the goal to be achieved which gives him a certain direction to conduct the research. For example: a television soap wants to find out about its popularity among children. The problem here is clear and the goal is also known. Causal Research Under causal research the problems are also well structured. However in contrast to the case in the descriptive research, the researcher is also confronted with cause-and-effectproblems. The main tasks in such research are to isolate cause(s), and tell whether and to what extent cause(s)result(s) in effect(s) (Ghauri Gronhaug, 2002). From the analysis, we have found that the research performed by Tuner, C Lamond was exploratory but causal in nature because it seeks to identify the cause and effect relationship of the stance of social sciences on the evaluation and discussion. The study has focused only on one purpose which we have identified above but quite broad in nature. Now, the next section which we have analyzed is the providence of the theoretical framework and background in the study. Yes! The researcher has provided a great framework and background study to evident their analysis. Theoretical framework and background is use too present a clear and broad picture to the reader for their digestion of the pin concept rose in the research, and Turner did the same in a proficient manner. The literature review presented in this research was also ample to describe each and every thing in an impeccable manner, which has been referred as the backbone for any research, Turner did a great job to accumulate and incor porate sufficient data for his analysis. The main research question hypothesized in that research is mentioned below, H1: There is no strong relationship between the social sciences research and the preponderance of the effective and target oriented evaluation. HA: There is a strong relationship between the social sciences research and the preponderance of the effective and target oriented evaluation. In order to excrete out the true result, the sample questionnaire has no question which asks the name and address of the respondent. The researcher keeps the identity of the people anonyms to mitigate the dilemma of biasness from the research. No personal data was collected except some demographic such as age, education, status and tenure. In this study, the respondent has been selected accordance with their status and designation like managers, subordinates and supervisors. Buy custom The Research Design essay
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Leadership - Essay Example After the managers of companies expose what values they believe in, they will become objects of derision if they fail to live up to their own expectations. However, when they lead by example, they effectively influence the activities of others. Competence is highly associated with wisdom in making tough decisions when executing an activity to achieve set objectives (Conyers, 2010). Competent leaders are imaginative people who use their practical knowledge to oversee the execution of guidelines and policies. Inspirational leaders are those who believe that their workers have as many talents as themselves. Companies can only achieve their objectives if they allow their employees to have a turn at participating in decision making policies. This means that all workers in companies have to be judged fairly and given the same opportunities to participate in fulfilling organizational objectives as are extended to the company leaders. A good leader will refrain from showing that he has favou rites among his companyÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel; even if he does (Hybels, 2008). A good leader will use personal character and the ability to complete tasks to determine the workers who should be promoted. Intelligence and Communication A person has to exhibit self-discipline as well as self-awareness in order to be perceived as being intelligent. A good worker will also portray a calm attitude when faced with considerable challenges and show a readiness to cooperate with others in order to accomplish organizational objectives even when there are other personal issues that he or she is dealing with (Conyers, 2010). A good worker, and, therefore, potential leader, should also be in possession of good communication skills that allow him to be able to communicate successfully with high ranking managers as well as subordinates. For communication to transpire there has to be a message, channel, sender, and receiver. Any interpretations of the messages and feedback given depend largely on how the receiver understands the message. The receiver can also be the sender at some point (Yan and Hunt, 2005). There are essential qualities that every leader should have. Some of these include personal integrity, inspiration or motivation and good communication skills. Understanding the acknowledged and unacknowledged regulations and boundaries aids leaders in perceiving the expectations of their societies. Keeping an open mind permits the consideration of the diverse viewpoints that are presented. The importance of honouring oneÃ¢â¬â¢s commitments cannot be understated. This will enhance oneÃ¢â¬â¢s associations with other people. People who will be attracted to following any one leader will want to trust that he has the skills they yearn to emulate. The Role of Personal Integrity Personal integrity is, of necessity, one of the traits that make a good leader. This trait, however, is rarely found in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business setting. There have been many recent reports on how moral failings have resulted in the resignation of more than one corporate leader. Many times, men and women who are elected into positions of business leadership believe that they can be able to withstand all temptations. However, in making such assumptions, they blind themselves to the possibility that they are deceiving themselves. Most business leaders never set out to intentionally commit fraud or sexually harass their
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Essential elements for effectiveness 4th edition (phsycology class) pick two chapters out of the book and write a two page - Essay Example Other definitions consider the nature of human motivation in broader terms. In these regards, psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism are considered. In terms of Psychoanalytic theory, the text demonstrates that this theory contends human personality and motivation are determined by early experiences in childhood. Conversely, Behaviorism argues that human actions are conditioned and structured by elements in their immediate environment. While being in-large part unconscious, they are still elements that are actively conditioned. These theories of human behavior are contrasted with humanistic theories, such as existentialism. In these regards, itÃ¢â¬â¢s argued that human behavior is determined by our own independent decision making and not an outside element of unconscious conditioning. Another theory discussed is the cognitive-behaviorist theory that considers behavior as a hybrid as conscious and unconscious elements. Considering the issues of human behavior from another perspective , the text considers it in terms of locus of control. Essentially, this refers to whether human freedom and decision making is an element of internal or external elements. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s argued that individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to happiness. This is because they have granted themselves more power in their lives through an increased perception on decision making. The text also considers the nature of success. From a general perspective, it argues that Ã¢â¬Å"effective people do the things that ineffective people donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like doingÃ¢â¬ (Abascal, pg. 31). Another perspective considered in the text is that of self-efficacy. In these regards, humans are able to create symbolic models of their desired existence or experience. They can then compare their current progress with that of the symbolic model and change actions accordingly. Another element within this mode of perspective is cognitive restructuring. In large part cognitive restructuring fu nctions as the active element in cognitive therapy. This mode functions by considering an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s irrational beliefs and then working towards restructuring them in ways that are more effective for their existence. The text presents a number of potential models wherein psychologists or individuals can outline their thought-process and attempt to derive more functional thinking patterns. In terms of theoretical perspectives, one of the insights provided is that correlation does not man causation. While this is a broad concept, generally it seems to refer to the notion that while oftentimes events might seem to relate with each other, it is a mistake of human cognition to always assume that they are positively correlated. The text then considers the importance of adopting a generally positive outlook on life. In these regards, itÃ¢â¬â¢s argued that the power of positive thinking is such that it actually influences an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness and success. The next cha pter is chapter five and it is titled Understanding Stress. One of the key introductory remarks in this chapter is that, Ã¢â¬Å"Mastering stress is an essential element in maintaining a healthy lifestyle which is fundamental to wellnessÃ¢â¬ (Abascal, pg. 113). In large part the chapter deals with ways that the individual can better manage their stress levels. One such distinction made is between stress mastery and stress management. In these regards, itÃ¢â¬â¢s indicated that stress management is a temporary element that is more akin
Friday, January 31, 2020
Social Science Disciplines Essay Demography is the study of populations and population changes and trends, using resources such as statistics of births, deaths and disease. Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Statistics, Methods and Computing involves the collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative social science data. Development Studies, Human Geography and Environmental Planning Ã¢â¬ ¢Development Studies is a multidisciplinary branch of the social sciences which addresses a range of social and economic issues related to developing or low-income countries. Ã¢â¬ ¢Human Geography studies the world, its people, communities and cultures, and differs from physical geography mainly in that it focuses on human activities and their impact for instance on environmental change. Ã¢â¬ ¢Environmental Planning explores the decision-making processes for managing relationships within and between human systems and natural systems, in order to manage these processes in an effective, transparent and equitable manner. Economics, Management and Business Studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Economics seeks to understand how individuals interact within the social structure, to address key questions about the production and exchange of goods and services. Ã¢â¬ ¢Management and Business Studies explores a wide range of aspects relating to the activities and management of business, such as strategic and operational management, organisational psychology, employment relations, marketing, accounting, finance and logistics. Education, Social Anthropology, and Linguistics Ã¢â¬ ¢Education is one of the most important social sciences, exploring how people learn and develop. Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Anthropology is the study of how human societies and social structures are organised and understood. Ã¢â¬ ¢Linguistics focuses on language and how people communicate through spoken sounds and words. Law, Economic and Social History Ã¢â¬ ¢Law focuses on the rules created by governments and people to ensure a more orderly society. Ã¢â¬ ¢Economic and Social History looks at past events to learn from history and better understand the processes of contemporary society. Politics and International Relations Ã¢â¬ ¢Politics focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and policy, at all levels up from the individual to a national and international level. Ã¢â¬ ¢International Relations is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of other organisations. Psychology and Sociology Ã¢â¬ ¢Psychology studies the human mind and try to understand how people and groups experience the world through various emotions, ideas, and conscious states. Ã¢â¬ ¢Sociology involves groups of people, rather than individuals, and attempts to understand the way people relate to each other and function as a society or social sub-groups. Science and Technology Studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Science and Technology Studies is concerned with what scientists do, what their role is in our society, the history and culture of science, and the policies and debates that shape our modern scientific and technological world. Social Policy and Social Work Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Policy is an interdisciplinary and applied subject concerned with the analysis of societies responses to social need, focusing on aspects of society, economy and policy that are necessary to human existence, and how these can be provided. Ã¢â¬ ¢Social Work focuses on social change, problem-solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance social justice. This article is about the science studying social groups. For the integrated field of study intended to promote civic competence, see Social studies. Social science refers to the academic disciplines concerned with the society and the relationships of individuals within a society, which primarily rely on empirical approaches. It is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to anthropology, economics, political science,psychology and sociology. In a wider sense, it may often include humanities such as archaeology, area studies, communication studies,cultural studies, folkloristics, history, law, linguistics, and rhetoric. The term may however be used in the specific context of referring to the original science of society, established in 19th century, sociology (Latin: socius, companion; Greek Ã »ÃÅ'Ã ³Ã ¿Ãâ, lÃ ³gos, word, knowledge, study.). Ãâ°mile Durkheim, Karl Marx and Max Weber are typically cited as the principal architects of modern social science by this definition. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining the quantitative and qualitative techniques). The term social research has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was scientific. Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and was influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial revolution and the French revolution.The social sciences developed from the sciences (experimental and applied), or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in various grand encyclo pedia of Diderot, with articles from Rousseau and other pioneers. The growth of the social sciences is also reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw social science first used as a distinct conceptual field. Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative; metaphysical speculation was avoided. Auguste Comte used the term science social to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier; Comte also referred to the field as social physics. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the Social Sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route that was taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Ãâ°mile Durkheim, studying social facts, andVilfredo Pareto,Ã opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which the social phenomena was identifi ed with and understood; this was championed by figures such as Max Weber. The fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values; the antipositivism and verstehen sociology of Max Weber firmly demanded on this distinction. In this route, theory (description) and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject. Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure. The development of social science subfields became very quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behavior, social and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodo logy. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, sociobiology, neuropsychology, bioeconomics and the history and sociology of science. Increasingly, quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics. Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed grand theory with the various midrange theories which, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; for more, see consilience. The social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the re search of, and sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term social science may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim, Marx, and Weber, or more generally to all disciplines outside of noble science and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, education, health, economy and trade, and art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism. Branches of social science[edit source | editbeta] Social Science areas The following are problem areas and discipline branches within the social sciences. Ã¢â¬ ¢Anthropology Ã¢â¬ ¢Area studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Business studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Communication studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Criminology Ã¢â¬ ¢Demography Ã¢â¬ ¢Development studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Economics Ã¢â¬ ¢Education Ã¢â¬ ¢Geography Ã¢â¬ ¢History Ã¢â¬ ¢Industrial relations Ã¢â¬ ¢Information science Ã¢â¬ ¢Law Ã¢â¬ ¢Library science Ã¢â¬ ¢Linguistics Ã¢â¬ ¢Media studies Ã¢â¬ ¢Political science Ã¢â¬ ¢Psychology Ã¢â¬ ¢Public administration Ã¢â¬ ¢Sociology The Social Science disciplines are branches of knowledge which are taught and researched at the college or university level. Social Science disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned Social Science societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Social Science fields of study usually have several sub-disciplines or branches, and the distinguishing lines between these are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Anthropology[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Anthropology Anthropology is the holistic science of man, a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the Social Sciences, Humanities, and Human Biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. The humanities generally study local traditions, through their history, literature, music, and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras. The social scienceshave generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology. Anthropology (like some fields of history) does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, Anthropology is divided into four sub-fields:Archaeology, Physical or Biological Anthropology, Anthropological Linguistics, and Cultural Anthropology. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos (Ã ¬Ã ½Ã ¸Ã Ãâ°Ãâ¬Ã ¿Ãâ) is from the Greek for human being or person. Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences. The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called primitive inÃ anthropological literature, but without any connotation of inferior. Today, anthropologists use terms such as less complex societies or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as pastoralist or forager or horticulturalist to refer to humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk (ethnos) remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological. Communication studies[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Communication studies and History of communication studies Communication studies deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Communication is institutionalized under many different names at different universities, including communication, communication studies, speech communication, rhetorical studies, communication science, media studies, communication arts, mass communication, media ecology, and communication and media science. Communication studies integrates aspects of both social sciences and the humanities. As a social science, the discipline often overlaps with sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology, political science, economics, and public policy, among others. From a humanities perspective, communication is concerned with rhetoric and persuasion (traditional graduate programs in communication studies trace their history to the rhetoricians of Ancient Greece). The field applies to outside disciplines as well, including engineering, architecture, mathematics, and information science. Economics[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Economics Economics is a social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. The word economics is from the Greek Ã ¿Ã¡ ¼ ¶Ã ºÃ ¿Ãâ [oikos], family, household, estate, and Ã ½ÃÅ'Ã ¼Ã ¿Ãâ [nomos], custom, law, and hence means household management or management of the state. An economist is a person using economic concepts and data in the course of employment, or someone who has earned a degree in the subject. The classic brief definition of economics, set out by Lionel Robbins in 1932, is the science which studies human behavior as a relation between scarce means having alternative uses. Without scarcity and alternative uses, there is no economic problem. Briefer yet is the study of how people seek to satisfy needs and wants and the study of the financial aspects of human behavior. Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front inChichicastenango Market, Guatemala. Economics has two broad branches: microeconomics, where the unit of analysis is the individual agent, such as a household or firm, andmacroeconomics, where the unit of analysis is an economy as a whole. Another division of the subject distinguishes positive economics, which seeks to predict and explain economic phenomena, from normative economics, which orders choices and actions by some criterion; such orderings necessarily involve subjective value judgments. Since the early part of the 20th century, economics has focused largely on measurable quantities, employing both theoretical models and empirical analysis. Quantitative models, however, can be traced as far back as the physiocratic school. Economic reasoning has been increasingly applied in recent decades to other social situations such as politics, law, psychology, history, religion,marriage and family life, and other social interactions. This paradigm crucially assumes (1) that resources are scarce because they are not sufficient to satisfy all wants, and (2) that economic value is willingness to pay as revealed for instance by market (arms length) transactions. Rival heterodoxschools of thought, such asÃ institutional economics, green economics, Marxist economics, and economic sociology, make other grounding assumptions. For example, Marxist economics assumes that economics primarily deals with the exchange of value, and that labor (human effort) is the source of all value. The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism. Education[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Education Europes oldest university, the University of Bologna, Italy Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positivejudgement and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (seesocialization). To educate means to draw out, from the Latin educare, or to facilitate the realization of an individuals potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology,philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology. The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the childs development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Mark Twains admonition to never let school interfere with your education). Family members may have a profound educational effect Ã¢â¬â often more profound than they realize Ã¢â¬â though family teaching may function very informally. Human geography[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Geography and Human geography Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. This mayinvolveCultural geography, transportation, health, military operations, and cities. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation life,soil, oceans, water and landforms are produced and interact. Physical geography examines phenomena related to the measurement of earth. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans. Other branches of geography include Social geography,regional geography, and geomatics. Geographers attempt to understand the earth in terms of phys ical and spatial relationships. The first geographers focused on the science of mapmaking and finding ways to precisely project the surface of the earth. In this sense, geography bridges some gaps between the natural sciences and social sciences. Historical geography is often taught in a college in a unified Department of Geography. Modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline, closely related to GISc, that seeks to understand humanity and its natural environment. The fields of Urban Planning, Regional Science, andPlanetology are closely related to geography. Practitioners of geography use many technologies and methods to collect data such as GIS, remote sensing, aerial photography, statistics, andglobal positioning systems (GPS). History[edit source | editbeta] Main article: History History is the continuous, systematic narrative and research into past human events as interpreted through historiographical paradigms or theories, such as the Turner Thesis about the American frontier. History has a base in both the social sciences and the humanities. In the United States the National Endowment for the Humanities includes history in its definition of a Humanities (as it does for applied Linguistics). However, the National Research Council classifies History as a Social science. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians useprimary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. The Social Science History Association, formed in 1976, brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested insocial history. Law[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Law Law in common parlance, means a rule which (unlike a rule of ethics) is capable of enforcement through institutions. However, many laws are based on norms accepted by a community and thus have an ethical foundation. The study of law crosses the boundaries between the social sciences and humanities, depending on ones view of research into its objectives and effects. Law is not always enforceable, especially in the international relations context. It has been defined as a system of rules, as an interpretive concept to achieve justice, as an authority to mediate peoples interests, and even as the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction. However one likes to think of law, it is a completely central social institution. Legal policy incorporates the practical manifestation of thinking from almost every social sciences and humanity. Laws are politics, because politicians create them. Law is philosophy, because moral and ethical persuasions shape their ideas. Law tells many of historys stories, because statutes, case law and codifications build up over time. And law is economics, because any rule about contract, tort, property law, labour law,company law and many more can have long lasting effects on the distribution of wealth. The noun law derives from the late Old English lagu, meaning something laid down or fixed and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex. Linguistics[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics Linguistics investigates the cognitive and social aspects of human language. The field is divided into areas that focus on aspects of the linguistic signal, such as syntax (the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences), semantics (the study of meaning), morphology (the study of the structure of words), phonetics (the study of speech sounds) and phonology (the study of the abstract sound system of a particular language); however, work in areas like evolutionary linguistics (the study of the origins and evolution of language) and psycholinguistics (the study of psychologicalÃ factors in human language) cut across these divisions. The overwhelming majority of modern research in linguistics takes a predominantly synchronic perspective (focusing on language at a particular point in time), and a great deal of itÃ¢â¬âpartly owing to the influence of Noam ChomskyÃ¢â¬âaims at formulating theories of the cognitive processing of language. However, language does not exist in a vacuum, or only in the brain, and approaches like contact linguistics, creole studies, discourse analysis, social interactional linguistics, and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context. Sociolinguistics often makes use of traditional quantitative analysis and statistics in investigating the frequency of features, while some disciplines, like contact linguistics, focus on qualitative analysis. While certain areas of linguistics can thus be understood as clearly falling within the social sciences, other areas, like acoustic phonetics and neurolinguistics, draw on the natural sciences. Linguistics draws only secondarily on the humanities, which played a rather greater role in linguistic inquiry in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ferdinand Saussure is considered the father of modern linguistics. Political science[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Political science and Politics Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. Fields and subfields of political science include political economy, political theory and philosophy, civics and comparative politics, theory of direct democracy, apolitical governance, participatory direct democracy, national systems, cross-national political analysis, political development, international relations, foreign policy, international law, politics, public administration, administrative behavior, public law, judicial behavior, and public policy. Political science also studies power in international relations and the theory of Great powers and Superpowers. Political science is methodologically diverse, although recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the use of the scientific method . That is the proliferation of formal-deductive model building andÃ quantitative hypothesis testing. Approaches to the discipline include rational choice, classical political philosophy, interpretivism, structuralism, and behavioralism, realism, pluralism, and institutionalism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents, interviews, and official records, as well as secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles are used in building and testing theories. Empirical methods include survey research,statistical analysis/econometrics, case studies, experiments, and model building. Herbert Baxter Adams is credited with coining the phrase political science while teaching history at Johns Hopkins University. Public administration [edit source | editbeta] Main article: Public administration One of the main branches of political science, public administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. The pursuit of the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice is the ultimate goal of the field. Though public administration has historically referred to as government management, it increasingly encompasses non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that also operate with a similar, primary dedication to the betterment of humanity. Its the government protocol to solve a public problem. According to Anne Schneider and Helen Ingram, policies constitute the discourses, text, regulations and laws. Also the making of public policies include the enforcement of such and the tools given to the institutions to do so. Differentiating public administration from business administration, a closely related field, has become a popular method for defining the discipline by contrasting the two. First, the goals of public administration are more closely related to those often cited as goals of the American founders and democratic people in general.[dubious Ã¢â¬â discuss] That is, public employees work to improve equality, justice, security, efficiency, effectiveness, and, at times, the profit. These values help to both differentiate the field from business administration, primarily concerned with profit, and define the discipline. Second, public administration is a relatively new, multidisciplinary field.Ã Woodrow Wilsons The Study of Administration is frequently cited as the seminal work. Wilson advocated a more professional operation of public officials daily activities. Further, the future president identified the necessity in the United States of a separation between party politics and good bureaucracy, which has also been a lasting theme. The multidisciplinary nature of public administration is related to a third defining feature: administrative duties. Public administrators work in public agencies, at all levels of government, and perform a wide range of tasks. Public administrators collect and analyze data (statistics), monitor fiscal operations (budgets, accounts, and cash flow), organize large events and meetings, draft legislation, develop policy, and frequently execute legally mandated, government activities. Regarding this final facet, public administrators find themselves serving as parole officers, secretaries, note takers, paperwork processors, record keepers, notaries of the public, ca shiers, and managers. Indeed, the discipline couples well with many vocational fields such as information technology, finance, law, and engineering. When it comes to the delivery and evaluation of public services, a public administrator is undoubtedly involved. Psychology[edit source | editbeta] Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior and mental processes. Psychology also refers to the application of suchknowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. The word psychologycomes from the ancient Greek ÃËÃâ¦Ãâ¡Ã ®, psyche (soul, mind) and logy, study). Psychology differs from anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology in seeking to capture explanatory generalizations about the mental function and overt behavior of individuals, while the other disciplines focus on creating descriptive generalizations about the functioning of social groups or situation-specific human behavior. In practice, however, there is quite a lot of cross-fertilization that takes place among the various fields. Psychology differs from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behavior, and of the overall processes of a system, andnot simply the biological or neural processes themselves, though the subfield of neuropsychology combines the study of the actual neural processes with the study of the mental effects they have subjectively produced. Many people associate Psychology with Clinical Psychology which focuses on assessment and treatment of problems in living and psychopathology. In reality, Psychology has myriad specialties including: Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Mathematical psychology, Neuropsychology, and Quantitative Analysis of Behavior to name only a few. Psychology is a very broad science that is rarely tackled as a whole, major block. Although some subfields encompass a natural science base and a social science application, others can be clearly distinguished as having little to do with the social sciences or having a lot to do with the social sciences. For example, biological psychology is considered a natural science with a social scientific application (as is clinical medicine), social and occupational psychology are, generally speaking, purely social sciences, whereas neuropsychology is a natural science that lacks application out of the scientific tradition entirely. In British universities, emphasis on what tenet of psychology a student has studied and/or concentrated is communicated through the degree conferred: B.Psy. indicates a balance between natural and social sciences, B.Sc. indicates a strong (or entire) scientific concentration, whereas a B.A. underlines a majority of social science credits. This is not always necessarily the case however, and in many UK institutions students studying the B.Psy, B.Sc, and B.A. follow the same curriculum as outlined by The British Psychological Society and have the same options of specialism open to them regardless of whether they choose a balance, a heavy science basis, or heavy social science basis to their degree. If they applied to read the B.A. for example, but specialised in heavily science based modules, then they will still generally be awarded the B.A. Sociology[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Sociology Ãâ°mile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology. Sociology is the systematic study of society and human social action. The meaning of the word comes from the suffix -ology which means study of,Ã derived from Greek, and the stem soci- which is from the Latin word socius, meaning companion, or society in general. Sociology was originally established by Auguste Comte (1798Ã¢â¬â1857) in 1838. Comte endeavoured to unify history, psychology and economics through the descriptive understanding of the social realm. He proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy [1830Ã¢â¬â1842] and A General View of Positivism (1844). Though Comte is generally regarded as the Father of Sociology, the discipline was formally established by another French thinker, Ãâ°mile Durkheim (1858Ã¢â¬â1917), who developed positivism as a foundation to practical social research. Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method. In 1896, he established the journal LAnnÃ ©e Sociologique. Durkheims seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a case study of suicide rates amongst Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis frompsychology or philosophy. Karl Marx rejected Comtes positivism but nevertheless aimed to establish a science of society based on historical materialism, becoming recognised as a founding figure of sociology posthumously as the term gained broader meaning. Around the start of the 20th century, the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, developed sociol ogical antipositivism. The field may be broadly recognised as an amalgam of three modes of social thought in particular: Durkheimian positivism and structural functionalism; Marxist historical materialism and conflict theory; Weberian antipositivism and verstehen analysis. American sociology broadly arose on a separate trajectory, with little Marxist influence, an emphasis on rigorous experimental methodology, and a closer association with pragmatism and social psychology. In the 1920s, the Chicago school developedsymbolic interactionism. Meanwhile in the 1930s, the Frankfurt School pioneered the idea of critical theory, an interdisciplinary form of Marxist sociologydrawing upon thinkers as diverse as Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche. Critical theory would take on something of a life of its own after World War II, influencing literary criticism and the Birmingham School establishment of cultural studies. Sociology evolved as an academic response to the challenges of modernity, such as industrialization, urbanization,Ã secularization, and a perceived process of enveloping rationalization.Because sociology is such a broad discipline, it can be difficult to define, even for professional sociologists. The field generally concerns the social rule s and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, communities and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life. The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes. In the terms of sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, social scientists seek an understanding of the Social Construction of Reality. Most sociologists work in one or more subfields. One useful way to describe the discipline is as a cluster of sub-fields that examine different dimensions of society. For example, social stratification studies inequality and class structure; demography studies changes in a population size or type; criminology examines criminal behavior and deviance; and political sociology studies the interaction between society and state. Since its inception, sociological epistemologies, methods, and frames of enquiry, have significantly expanded and diverged. Sociologists use a diversity of research methods, drawing upon either empirical techniques or critical theory. Common modern methods in clude case studies, historical research, interviewing, participant observation, social network analysis, survey research,statistical analysis, and model building, among other approaches. Since the late 1970s, many sociologists have tried to make the discipline useful for non-academic purposes. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, developers, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy, through subdisciplinary areas such asevaluation research, methodological assessment, and public sociology. New sociological sub-fields continue to appear Ã¢â¬â such as community studies, computational sociology, environmental sociology, network analysis, actor-network theory and a growing list, many of which are cross-disciplinary in nature. Additional fields of study[edit source | editbeta] Additional applied or interdisciplinary fields related to the Social Sciences include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Archaeology is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes. Ã¢â¬ ¢Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. Ã¢â¬ ¢Behavioral science is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world. Ã¢â¬ ¢Computational social science is an umbrella field encompassing computational approaches within the social sciences. Ã¢â¬ ¢Demography is the statistical study of all human populations. Ã¢â¬ ¢Development studies a multidisciplinary branch of social science which addresses issues of concern to developing countries. Ã¢â¬ ¢Environmental social science is the broad, transdisciplinary study of interrelations between humans and the natural environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Environmental studies integrate social, humanistic, and natural science perspectives on the relation between humans and the natural environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Ã¢â¬ ¢International studies covers both International relations (the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system) and International education (the comprehensive approach that intentionally prepares people to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world). Ã¢â¬ ¢Journalism is the craft of conveying news, descriptive material and comment via a widening spectrum of media. Ã¢â¬ ¢Legal management is a social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of State and Legal elements. Ã¢â¬ ¢Library science is an interdisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation and disseminat ion of information resources; and the political economy of information. Ã¢â¬ ¢Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Ã¢â¬ ¢Marketing the identification of human needs and wants, defines and measures their magnitude for demand and understanding theprocess of consumer buying behavior to formulate products and services, pricing, promotion and distribution to satisfy these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. Ã¢â¬ ¢Political economy is the study of production, buying and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government. Methodology[edit source | editbeta] Social research[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Social research The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in 1086, whilst some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to 1663 with the publication of John Graunts Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality. Social research began most intentionally, however, with the positivist philosophy of science in the 19th century. In contemporary usage, social research is a relatively autonomous term, encompassing the work of practitioners from various disciplines which share in its aims and methods. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agents social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods originally rooted in classical sociology and statistical mathematics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, and marketing and market research. Social research methods may be divided into two broad schools: Ã¢â¬ ¢Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims. Ã¢â¬ ¢Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality Social scientists will commonly combine quantitative and qualitative approaches as part of a multi-strategy design. Questionnaires, field-based data collection, archival database information and laboratory-based data collections are some of the measurement techniques used. It is noted the importance of measurement and analysis, focusing on the (difficult to achieve) goal of objective research or statisticalÃ hypothesis testing. A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modelling (also modeling). Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) which presents knowledge of that system in usable form. Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models. These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. The system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an integrated whole can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. Dynamical system modeled as a mathematical formalization has fixed rule which describes the time dependence of a points position in its ambient space. Small changes in the state of the system correspond to small changes in the numbers. The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a fixed rule that describes what future states follow from the current state. The rule is deterministic: for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Confusion in Landscape for a Good Woman I found Landscape for a Good Woman to be a confusing landscape, one whose contours are difficult to follow. I don't mean to imply that I did not find the book fascinating, but it was so rich and the stories and scholarly discussions were so intertwined that it was difficult to keep track of what Steedman was trying to convey. Why did she choose to write in this way? Instead of giving us a straight narrative about her childhood and allowing us to make our own inferences, I feel as if she's told a story and, at the same time, she's told us how to interpret that story and has given us a critique of her own and others' interpretations of her story. Steedman does begin the section titled "Stories" by saying that "this book. . . is about interpretations." Of course, all stories, fiction or non-fiction, are interpretations of events and characters, told from the perspective of the author. I don't find the interpretations themselves to be problematic; maybe what I find confusing is that Steedman gives us interpretations from so many different...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This is a story of when I fell down in the school cafeteria. This event was very embarrassing at first and I kind of felt sad. After a while, I started laughing with the kids that were laughing at me, so that I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel bad the rest of the day and so that I could get over it. This is my most embarrassing day, but it also one of the funniest days. I learned a very important lesson that day, which is how to turn an embarrassing situation into a bearable situation. It all started on Tuesday August, 21 2012. I woke up at 5:30am to get ready for school.I used the shower and got dressed. After getting dressed, I ate breakfast and started walking to the bus stop and waited for the bus. I got off the bus and went to get my books for my classes. It was a good day. I went through my classes without any problems. I had just left my 5th period class, French, to go to the cafeteria to get something to eat. I walked from French class and waited at the cafeteria doors for my friends, th en we went into the cafeteria. We got in line and waited to get our lunch. Waiting in line for my lunch felt as if I was waiting in line for a roller coaster.The line was extremely long and I was getting tired of waiting, but knew I had to wait. I got a chicken sandwich, an apple and a cookie. I went to the lunch lady and paid for my lunch. I went to a small table in front of the cafeteria and got some napkins and ketchup. After getting my lunch, I took it to my table and sat at my table to eat lunch. After a while I got up to stand in the line with my friends again. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t looking, so I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that there was water on the floor. I also didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see the cautionary sign that says the area is wet and that people should be careful. I slipped and fell so hard the whole cafeteria heard it.I looked up and Ã¢â¬Å"BAMÃ¢â¬ people that where around me started laughing and pointing at me. I was embarrassed and sad and at that very moment I wanted the ground to open up and swallow me. I wanted to be anywhere else but at the cafeteria at that moment. However, after a little while I started laughing too. I laughed because I thought it was funny and also because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to feel bad for being laughed at because being laughed at hurts. So, I just acted like nothing happened. After lunch I went back to class and laughed about it again to myself. The thing is, even though it was embarrassing, it was also very funny.I went to my last two classes, which were English and Biology. During those two classes it was hard for me to be fully involved in the class because I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help thinking about my incident at the school cafeteria. After school I went to my locker to get my soccer bag for practice. During practice all I could think about yet again was the accident in the cafeteria. I was just as energetic at soccer practice, like always and I was joking around with my teammates as I always do. After practice I went home, ate, and fell asleep. When I was sleeping I dreamt about the accident and I felt just as embarrassed in the dream.Now every time that something embarrassing happens to me, I think about what I did in the cafeteria and I just laugh. I promised myself, that from now on I will pay attention to where IÃ¢â¬â¢m going and be mindful of my steps. I also learned from that experience that things are not always as bad as they seem. If I had cried or showed it on my face that I was embarrassed and sad, the kids who were laughing at me would have kept on laughing. However, since I laughed with them, I took control of the situation by showing them that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a big deal. I guess in life, we need to learn how to laugh.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Theres no way to get a precise count of gun ownership in the United States on a state-by-state basis. Thats due in large part to lack of national standards for licensing and registering firearms, which is left to the states and their varying degrees of regulation. But there are several reputable organizations that track firearms-related statistics, such as the nonpartisan Pew Research Center, which can provide a fairly accurate look at gun ownership by state, as well as annual federal licensing data. Guns in the U.S. According to the Washington Post, there are more than 350 million guns in the U.S. That figure comes from a 2015 analysis of data from theÃ Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF). But other sources say there are far fewer guns in the U.S., perhaps 245 million or even 207 million. Even if you use a lower estimate, thats still more than one-third of all civilian-owned guns in the world, making America No 1. in terms of gun ownership in the world. A 2017 survey by the Pew Research Center reveals some more interesting stats about guns in the U.S. Handguns are the most common choice of firearm among gun owners, especially those who only own one weapon. The South is the region with the most guns (about 36 percent), followed by the Midwest and West (32 and 31 percent, respectively) and the Northeast (16 percent). Men are more likely than women to own a gun, according to Pew. About 40 percent of men say they own a firearm, while 22 percent of women do. A closer analysis of this demographic data reveals that about 46 percent of guns are owned by rural households, while just 19 percent of urban households do. About 66 percent of firearms in the U.S. are owned by people aged 50 and older. People aged 30 to 49 own about 28 percent of the nations guns, with the rest belonging to this 18 to 29. Politically, Republicans are twice as likely as Democrats to own a gun. Number of Guns Ranked by State The following data is based on 2017 gun registration statistics from the ATF, as compiled by HuntingMark.com. States (plus Washington D.C.) are ranked by guns per capita. If you were to rank states by total guns registered, Texas would be No. 1. For a different perspective, CBS conducted a telephone survey that placed Alaska at the top of the per-capita ranking. Rank State # of guns per capita # of guns registered 1 Wyoming 229.24 132,806 2 Washington D.C. 68.05 47,228 3 New Hampshire 46.76 64,135 4 New Mexico 46.73 97,580 5 Virginia 36.34 307,822 6 Alabama 33.15 161,641 7 Idaho 28.86 49,566 8 Arkansas 26.57 79,841 9 Nevada 25.64 76,888 10 Arizona 25.61 179,738 11 Louisiana 24.94 116,831 12 South Dakota 24.29 21,130 13 Utah 23.48 72,856 14 Connecticut 22.96 82,400 15 Alaska 21.38 15,824 16 Montana 21.06 22,133 17 South Carolina 21.01 105,601 18 Texas 20.79 588,696 19 West Virginia 19.42 35,264 20 Pennsylvania 18.45 236,377 21 Georgia 18.22 190,050 22 Kentucky 18.2 81,068 23 Oklahoma 18.13 71,269 24 Kansas 18.06 52,634 25 North Dakota 17.56 13,272 26 Indiana 17.1 114,019 27 Maryland 17.03 103,109 28 Colorado 16.48 92,435 29 Florida 16.35 343,288 30 Ohio 14.87 173,405 31 North Carolina 14.818 152,238 32 Oregon 14.816 61,383 33 Tennessee 14.76 99,159 34 Minnesota 14.22 79,307 35 Washington 12.4 91,835 36 Missouri 11.94 72,996 37 Mississippi 11.89 35,494 38 Nebraska 11.57 22,234 39 Maine 11.5 15,371 40 Illinois 11.44 146,487 41 Wisconsin 11.19 64,878 42 Vermont 9.41 5,872 43 Iowa 9.05 28,494 44 California 8.71 344,622 45 Michigan 6.59 65,742 46 New Jersey 6.38 57,507 47 Hawaii 5.5 7,859 48 Massachusetts 5.41 37,152 49 Delaware 5.04 4,852 50 Rhode Island 3.98 37,152 51 New York 3.83 76,207 Sources CBS News staff. Gun Ownership and Gun Violence in America, by the Numbers. CBSNews.com, 15 February 2018. Edwards, Jeff. Gun Ownership Mapped: How Many Guns Each State Had In 2017? HuntingMark.com,Ã 18 February 2018. Ingraham, Christopher. There are Now More Guns Than People in the United States. WashingtonPost.com, 5 October 2015. McCarthy, Tom; Beckett, Lois; and Glenza, Jessica. Americas Passion for Guns: Ownership and Violence by the Numbers. TheGuardian.com, 3 October 2017. Parker, Kim; Horowitz, Juliana Menasche; Igielnik, Ruth; Oliphant, Baxter; and Brown, Anna. The Demographics of Gun Ownership. Pew Research Center, 22 June 2017.