Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Essential elements for effectiveness 4th edition (phsycology class) Essay

Essential elements for effectiveness 4th edition (phsycology class) pick two chapters out of the book and write a two page - Essay Example Other definitions consider the nature of human motivation in broader terms. In these regards, psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism are considered. In terms of Psychoanalytic theory, the text demonstrates that this theory contends human personality and motivation are determined by early experiences in childhood. Conversely, Behaviorism argues that human actions are conditioned and structured by elements in their immediate environment. While being in-large part unconscious, they are still elements that are actively conditioned. These theories of human behavior are contrasted with humanistic theories, such as existentialism. In these regards, it’s argued that human behavior is determined by our own independent decision making and not an outside element of unconscious conditioning. Another theory discussed is the cognitive-behaviorist theory that considers behavior as a hybrid as conscious and unconscious elements. Considering the issues of human behavior from another perspective , the text considers it in terms of locus of control. Essentially, this refers to whether human freedom and decision making is an element of internal or external elements. It’s argued that individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to happiness. This is because they have granted themselves more power in their lives through an increased perception on decision making. The text also considers the nature of success. From a general perspective, it argues that â€Å"effective people do the things that ineffective people don’t feel like doing† (Abascal, pg. 31). Another perspective considered in the text is that of self-efficacy. In these regards, humans are able to create symbolic models of their desired existence or experience. They can then compare their current progress with that of the symbolic model and change actions accordingly. Another element within this mode of perspective is cognitive restructuring. In large part cognitive restructuring fu nctions as the active element in cognitive therapy. This mode functions by considering an individual’s irrational beliefs and then working towards restructuring them in ways that are more effective for their existence. The text presents a number of potential models wherein psychologists or individuals can outline their thought-process and attempt to derive more functional thinking patterns. In terms of theoretical perspectives, one of the insights provided is that correlation does not man causation. While this is a broad concept, generally it seems to refer to the notion that while oftentimes events might seem to relate with each other, it is a mistake of human cognition to always assume that they are positively correlated. The text then considers the importance of adopting a generally positive outlook on life. In these regards, it’s argued that the power of positive thinking is such that it actually influences an individual’s happiness and success. The next cha pter is chapter five and it is titled Understanding Stress. One of the key introductory remarks in this chapter is that, â€Å"Mastering stress is an essential element in maintaining a healthy lifestyle which is fundamental to wellness† (Abascal, pg. 113). In large part the chapter deals with ways that the individual can better manage their stress levels. One such distinction made is between stress mastery and stress management. In these regards, it’s indicated that stress management is a temporary element that is more akin

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